Ernest Moyer Birth of a Divine Revelation



Ch  32 Catalogue of Known Errors and Contradictions



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~464~ The Birth of a Divine Revelation


Catalogue of Known Errors and Contradictions

In the Urantia Papers Assignable to Caligastia

(With Notes) (Does not include scientific errors which may have been accommodation to understanding current in the 1930’s.)

My purpose in the following tabulation is to summarize the types of known errors or contradictions which exist within The Urantia Papers. Do they display a method in corruption of the Revelation? Can we get a handle on the limitations imposed upon Caligastia by the Revelators and the mass of the Revelation?

How were the changes implemented, without Sadler becoming aware of them? How was the text modified if the changes came through the mind of Christy when she channeled?

I have ranked them by page number rather than by subject, since the subjects vary. Of the nineteen cases, six are scientific. Nine cases are associated with the revelation about Jesus, in the Bestowal Paper or the Jesus Papers. Although the data are too slim for hard deductions, the evidence suggests concentration in the scientific Papers and the Jesus Papers as areas of corruption.

Since we are a materialistic, scientific-minded social order, the scientific corruptions would be the most susceptible to early discovery, as the record has shown. The Jesus Papers would be an area of attack because of Caligastia’s hatred for his Creator.

Virtually all of the corruptions are simple-minded, with alteration of single words or small phrases. This suggests a fear of discovery if changes were too massive. It also suggests the possibility of human corruption, which I used as explanation in my paper on Text Changes in The Urantia Papers.

On the other hand, the simple forms would have been amenable to alteration through Christy’s channeling. A few simple word alterations here and there could have been channeled by her, without her mind intervening in the process.

Even if she did not convey the “messages” purely, reiteration could have been employed to correct her pollution.

Two categories of corruption are evident.

One: to cause rejection of the Revelation.

Two: to pervert human thinking.

The first would be designed to retard acceptance, and thus dampen dissemination of the Revelation.

32 - Catalogue Of Errors ~465~

The second would alter human philosophical reasoning for generations to come. The purpose would be to defile attitudes about God, creation, and destiny.

I categorize the corruptions two ways:

First, I classify them according to the type. Then I classify them according to impact. They are numbered in paragraph sequence in the Tables below for easy reference.

Classified according to type:

  • A: Single world changes — 1, 9, 10, 12, 16, 17.

  • B: Insertion of phrases — 6, 11, 13.

  • C: Insertion of sentences — 7, 8.

  • D: Simple rework of paragraphs — 2, 5.

  • E: Insertion of paragraphs — 3, 4, 15, 18.

  • F: Rework of presentation — 14, 19.

  • Classified according to impact:

  • A: Transparent contradictions — 2, 3, 6, 9, 16, 17.

  • B: Hidden contradictions — 8, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 18.

  • C: Conceptual Perversions — 7, 19.

  • D: Scientific Errors — 1, 4, 5.

~466~ The Birth of a Divine Revelation


Page Reference


Counter Evidence




460, p1 Paper 41

The density of a nearby sun sixty thousand times that of our sun.

Reasons for change unknown. Sadler may have received advice from some technical person.

Changed by WS in second printing.

Simple change of one word from sixty to forty.


463 - p2 Paper 41

"The surface temperature is almost 6,000 degrees, about 35,000,000 degrees in the central regions. (All of these temperatures refer to your Fahrenheit scale.)

The sun's interior temperature is reported in scientific literature on the Fahrenheit scale, but its surface temperature of 6,000 is reported on the Kelvin absolute scale.

Uncorrected by Sadler

Required simple reference to Fahrenheit scale, or alteration in one number.


477, p1 Paper 42

"Each atom is a trifle over 1/100,000,000th of an inch in diameter, while an electron weighs a little less than 1/2,000th of the smallest atom, hydrogen. The positive proton, characteristic of the atomic nucleus, while it may be no larger than a negative electron, weighs from two to three thousand times more."

Internal contra-diction in the numbers assigned to the sizes and masses of atoms, electrons, and protons. Also contradicted by scientific evidence.

Changed in second printing by WS

To make statements consistent with following paragraph and scientific evidence.

Required rephrasing of sentences in the paragraph: "more" changed to "less" and phrase altered from "almost two thousand times more" to "two to three thousand times more."

32 - Catalogue Of Errors ~467~


Page Reference


Counter Evidence




478, p1 Paper 42

At the top of the page appears a statement about nuclear stability as more than 100 electrons are introduced artificially into one atomic system. The result is the instantaneous disruption of the central "proton," with wild dispersion of the electrons.

The statement contradicts known science. Elements above 100, with measurable radioactive life-times and appreciable mass, have been created.

The hyphenated

term "well-nigh" was added by WS in the second printing, under the assumption that nothing in the physical world can be instantaneous.

Required insertion of a new paragraph, or rearrangement of one given by the Revelators.


657, p5 Paper 57

". . . tidal friction acting as a brake on the rate of planetary-axial revolution until axial revolution ceases, leaving one hemisphere of the planet always turned toward the sun or larger body, as is illustrated by the planet Mercury and by the moon, which always turns the same face toward Urantia ."

Bad science. Mercury rotates with a cycle of 3/2.

Moon rotates with a cycle of 1/1. Neither Mercury nor Moon have stopped axial revolution.

Uncorrected by Sadler.

Required reconstruction of entire sentence to provide false statements

~468~ The Birth of a Divine Revelation


Page Reference


Counter Evidence




674: p4 Paper 59

"The marine life was much alike the world over and consisted of the seaweeds, one-celled organisms, simple sponges, trilobites, and other crustaceans -- shrimps, crabs, and lobsters."

The appearance of crustaceans — such as shrimps, crabs, and lobsters — could not have been contemporaneous with the trilobites. The crustaceans appeared much later.

Unknown to Sadler.

Required simple insertion of the three words.


799, p1 Paper 70

"While there is a divine and ideal form of government, such cannot be revealed but must be slowly and laboriously discovered by the men and women of each planet throughout the universes of time and space."

Contradicted by 517 - p5: "The entire universe is organized and administered on the represent-ative plan. Representative government is the divine ideal of self-government among non-perfect beings."

Contradicted by other state-ments in other sections.

Unnoticed by anyone until my discovery.

Required pla-cement of a single sentence at the end of Paper 70.


865, p1 Paper 77

Midwayers are always used in contacts with human mortals.

Numerous examples of contact made without the use of the midwayers.

Uncorrected by Sadler

Required insertion of a simple sentence.


883, p7 Paper 79

Migration of the red ma n over the Bering land straight from east to west.

Denied by history.

Changed by WS in second printing.

Simple change of one word: "east" to "west."


1024, p2 Paper 93 and 490, p4 Paper 43

The word "Michael" missing in the title "Christ Michael."

Sadler would not have known this was incorrect.

Never corrected.

Simple removal of one word in each case.

32 - Catalogue Of Errors ~469~


Page Reference


Counter Evidence




1317, p2 Paper 119

Three wise men visited Jesus "in the manger" after the family had moved to another location.

Subtle use of common mis-conception. The manger is a small feed box attached to the stable framing, not the stable.

The three wise men could not have visited him "in the manger" under any circumstance. Cute trick.

Phrase removed by WS in second printing.

Simple insertion of 3-word phrase.


1319, p2 Paper 119

Concerning Part III:

"We indited these narratives . . . in the year A.D. 1935 of Urantia time."

Contradicted by internal dates on pages 707 - p7, 710 - p6, 716 - p7 and 828 - p1.

Contradicted by Sadler in the History document.

Never corrected. Should have been clearly evident to everyone.

Simple change of one number: 1934 to 1935.


1363, p5 Paper 123

"Far to the east they could discern the Jordan valley and, far beyond, the rocky hills of Moab."

The rocky hills of Moab were not east of Nazareth but east of the Dead Sea.

Not visible from Nazareth.

Corrected by Sadler in second printing. He modified sentence to make rocky hills of Moab a statement rather than a visual possibility from the hill at Nazareth.

Required insertion of a simple phrase.

~470~ The Birth of a Divine Revelation


Page Reference


Counter Evidence




1648, p3 Paper 147

"Early on the morning of Tuesday, March 30, Jesus and the apostolic party started on their journey to Jerusalem for the Passover."

Evaluation of dates from several sources shows that the latest possible date for the Passover in A.D. 28 was Tuesday, March 30 (beginning with the sunset the previous day, Mon., March 29).

Jesus and his apostles set out for Jerusalem on the same day that the Passover began. They arrived at Bethany on April 2, too late for the ceremonies of the Passover Feast.

Never corrected by Sadler.

He probably was not reassured by comments from Adams.

He may have felt that it would require major rewrite of associated paragraphs.

Required simple alteration of date. Date several days earlier would not conflict with discussion context. The only objection would have been sabbath travel.


1753 -p4 1755- p6 Paper 158 385 - p1 Paper 35

Gabriel and Father Melchizedek both present on this world in conversation with Jesus

Statement on 1753 could be understood as communication while Gabriel and Father Melchizedek were still resident on Salvington..1755 could introduce error.

Previously unknown

Might have required simple insertion of paragraph on page 1755.

32 - Catalogue Of Errors ~471~


Page Reference


Counter Evidence




1849, p5 Paper 168

Lazarus remained at the Bethany home until the day of the crucifixion of Jesus

Lazarus took hasty flight Wednesday from Bethany to Philadelphia, pages: 1927, p4

Changed by WS in second printing.

Simple change of one word. "week" to "day."


1943, p2 Paper 179

Twelve apostles addressed by Jesus after Judas left the group.

Context clearly evident.

Changed by WS in second printing.

Simple change of one word: "apostles" to "twelve."


2041, p2 Paper 191

Jesus returned to Jerusem citizenship on Sunday, the 7th; and entered the embrace of the Most Highs of Edentia on Sunday, the 14th .

2057 states that he began the ascent to the right hand of his Father on May 18.

Error unknown until my discovery.

Required insertion of paragraph on page 2041, or alteration of dates in that paragraph.


2057-60. (Major error) Papers 193 to 194

As stated by Benjamin Adams in letter to WS dated March 5, 1959:

"The bestowing of the Holy Spirit at Pentecost is represented as occurring on the same day as the ascension and 40 days after the crucifixion.”

An obvious error: the word "Pentecost" means 50 and always occurs seven weeks after the Passover.

Sadler was aware of this missing period prior to publication of the Revelation but could not explain it.

Required major modification of text to smooth the continuity between Papers 193 and 194.

~472~ The Birth of a Divine Revelation

Note to other perversions at 533:

In Chapter 22 I show a remark I made to Martin Gardner:

Then the perversions began. They received trademark instructions. They received a location for the spiritual pole of the planet. They received an assignment of Norson as Vicegerent Planetary Supervisor. They received Sonsovocton as a character who could approve their actions.

Sonsovocton had the same origin as Norson and the giant Sequoia.”

Although I have no documentation for these actions, tradition carries through the Urantia community concerning these “personalities” and the giant Sherman Sequoia. In my note to Gardner I did not mention the name “Sherman.”

According to that tradition, coming out of Christy’s channeling, the belief was spread that the giant Sherman sequoia tree is the “spiritual pole of the planet.” This is based on statements in the Papers:

P.439 - p1 While planetary space reports are received at noon at the meridian of the designated spiritual headquarters, the transporters are dispatched from this same place at midnight. That is the most favorable time for departure and is the standard hour when not otherwise specified.

P.710 - p1 It was an eventful day on Urantia when our small group gathered about the planetary pole of space communication and received the first message from Salvington over the newly established mind circuit of the planet. And this first message, dictated by the chief of the archangel corps, said:

P.439 - p1 While planetary space reports are received at noon at the meridian of the designated spiritual headquarters, the transporters are dispatched from this same place at midnight. That is the most favorable time for departure and is the standard hour when not otherwise specified.

P.710 - p1 It was an eventful day on Urantia when our small group gathered about the planetary pole of space communication and received the first message from Salvington over the newly established mind circuit of the planet. And this first message, dictated by the chief of the archangel corps, said: These two remarks were combined to create the “spiritual pole of the planet,” although no such phrase is found in The Urantia Papers.

The following remark can be found on Internet:

When the ancient Egyptians were building the pyramids, a seed started to grow in the California mountains; today, that seed is the mighty General Sherman sequoia tree. Estimated at between 2,600 to 3,500 years of age, the Sherman tree is one of the largest living things on earth.


32 - Catalogue Of Errors ~473~

Standing 272-feet high, measuring more than 35-feet across its base, and weighing about four-and-a-half million pounds, General Sherman is one of a number of giant sequoias that make up the Giant Forest within the Sequoia-Kings Canyon National Park. The lowest branch on the Sherman sequoia is larger than the majority of trees east of the Mississippi.

Clearly, the giant Sherman sequoia could not have been the “spiritual pole of the planet” in the times of Andon and Fonta, a million years ago. The unthinking minds of the Urantians who inhabited 533, and their equally duped followers, did not recognize that:

First, no “spiritual pole” will be centered around a tree. That is pure fantasy.

Second, the time frames were wildly in disagreement.

But they could not see through such childish deception. We saw in Chapter 18 how Harold Sherman accepted allegiance to Sonsovocton. He did so because Sadler, Christy, Bill Sadler, Jr., and all the key personalities did also. What a truly sad commentary. This group of intelligent people fell head-over-heals into devotion to a fictional character invented by Caligastia. And how that Devil must have laughed, that he could so easily turn devotion back upon himself.

The same comments apply to the fictional Norson. He now shows up in the current channeling groups as another “spiritual teacher.”

Another appended note:

Meredith Sprunger reacted to my publication of corruptions in the Revelation. He addressed materials I had posted to Urantia Internet discussion groups.

I offered the following response:

Date of Email to Meredith: Thursday, December 16, 1999

Dear Meredith:

In your recent issue of the Spiritual Fellowship Journal Vol. 9, No. 2, Fall, 1999, you published an editorial you called Creeping Fundamentalism.

You referred to recent Internet postings regarding Corruptions in the Revelation. Those postings, of course, were from me, and expressed concern over errors and contradictions which had crept into the Revelation.

Your response was to fall back on a view that spiritual inspiration is the important purpose of Revelations, whether Biblical or Urantial, and that “limitations” should be expected in a work deriving from celestial beings who are not “of divine creator status,” and who relied on “thousands of human sources.” You also mentioned that the science of the Papers is dated to the early part of this century, thus indicating another limitation to Revelation, and that “the science and cosmology of the book are not inspired.”

These statements imply that contradictions should not be of great concern for “spiritual inspiration,” and that errors do not “invalidate its spiritual insight and truth.”

~474~ The Birth of a Divine Revelation

You suggest that “fundamentalist” views expect Revelations from God to be literally perfect. Thus the title of your editorial.

Unfortunately, you failed to state that corruptions have nothing to do with fundamentalism, liberalism, new-ageism, inspirationalism, or any other kind of ism. The discovery of corruptions is based on facts, and not on particular views of reality. Whether those corruptions spoil the “inspiration” of the Urantia Papers, or otherwise interfere in our proper understanding of God’s word to us, should be a matter for us to weigh, and not so casually reject.

I shall briefly review.

Through the work of Merritt Horn and Kristen Maaherra we now know that Sadler made changes to the text of the Revelation between the first and second printing. These were more than correction of spelling errors, punctuation, or capitalization. Changes were made because of obvious errors in Revelation “facts,” or equally obvious logical contradictions.

Some of the changes were the result of a letter from Benjamin Adams, Pastor of the Trinity Presbyterian Church in San Francisco, to Sadler in 1959 in which he pointed out contradictions and errors — which Sadler thereupon corrected. Adams felt the corruptions deserved attention.

Sadler corrected other errors and contradictions he personally discovered, or were pointed out to him by other people.

The question then before us is why, if the Revelation was not compromised in its inspirational value, Sadler felt a need to correct those errors and contradictions. By doing so he exposed himself to the charge that he made arbitrary changes in a work which many of us, both inspirationalists and fundamentalists, believe should have been better left alone. We naturally ask if Sadler knew better than the celestial revelators. This observation, of course, is founded on the fact that the Revelation had origins from celestial personalities, with far better understanding of universe processes than what we human mortal possess, and that they should have known the consequent impact of those corruptions on our understanding.

As an author who has written extensively, I understand the care which must be taken in publishing the written word, for fear it will be misunderstood, and with concern that I have my facts correct. I am sure that no human being would assign to immortal beings less care, and that if factual errors or contradictions exist within the Revelation, the celestial authors certainly should have known about them. This conclusion is especially true in light of the fact that revelations from celestial sources could have such a profound impact on the thinking and decisions of human mortals. Immortal beings would be even more careful.

Since Adams, Sadler, and myself were all concerned about the errors and contradictions there is the further question of why the celestial authors did not have that concern. Was Sadler correcting immortal beings? Or did some other process, not under his control or their control, introduce the corruptions?

It seems highly unlikely Sadler would have consciously created those corruptions, since he went to the trouble of correcting them between printings. It seems further unlikely that he would have unconsciously created them during the

32 - Catalogue Of Errors ~475~

transcription phase of the Revelation, since he remarks that his contribution was limited to spelling, punctuation, and capitalization.

When faced with the need to explain the corruptions, Sadler resorted to midwayer fallibility. He did so because he felt the corruptions were due to midwayer influence upon the Revelation. From the record he left in the History document we know a “third presentation” was made after the Revelation was completed and certified in 1935. Ostensibly, this was done under a continuing concern by the celestial authors for “Clarification of Concepts” and the “Removal of Ambiguities.” Sadler’s statements suggest he believed the third series derived from the midwayers, and that the corruptions took place during that period. Hence, his assignment to midwayer fallibility.

Why he believed the corruptions took place during the “third series” is not exactly clear. His anecdotal remarks imply that he recognized they did not occur during the precursor Papers, (first series), nor in the Revelation Papers which were “completed and certified” in 1935, (second series).

Carolyn Kendall verified the three “series” from facts recorded in her father’s diary.

As you can see from my previous remark, it is highly unlikely that immortal midwayers would be caught in such childishly simple errors and contradictions. If we made that assignment we would reduce them to a status inferior to human authors.

The question then becomes one of why Sadler made such an assignment. Available evidence suggests that the third series began after Lena died in 1939, and probably ended at the time of the Harold Sherman episode in 1942.

Refer to Carolyn Kendall’s document: The Plan for the Urantia Book Revelation.

People with common sense naturally ask: What other undiscovered factual errors or logical contradictions might exist within the Revelation? How might those errors impact on our understanding of Revelation facts, and how might they compromise the instructional value of the Revelation?

I am sure you will notice that when I use the words “understanding” and “instructional value” I am assigning a status to the Revelation which exceeds its “inspirational value.” Benjamin Adams gave it such importance. Sadler did also.

From study of the logic behind the errors and contradictions I realized they were not due to mere accident in passing the Revelation from celestial beings to the printing press. The corruptions had to be created by an intelligent hand with malicious intent.

This conclusion is warranted by sizing up the relative intelligence and memory power of various orders of sentient beings. As I explained above, we would not expect immortal midwayers to be more in fault than human beings, nor any of their supervisors of even greater celestial status, who certainly must have been observing and approving midwayer activities. Hence, if errors and contradictions crept into the Revelation, and if they were not due to the hand of Sadler, we are left with only one other cause.

From your remarks it appears that you avoided following this train of thought, and that you preferred to slough off causes by assigning such concerns to “fundamentalist” thinking. The “inspiration” of the Revelation was good enough for you.

~476~ The Birth of a Divine Revelation

Your subterfuge was to credit my analysis to a desire for revelation infallibility, regardless of the merits of the study. In other words, you engaged in an age-old common intellectual escape by faulting the messenger, instead of dealing with the facts.

If my assessment was correct we were then left with the task of locating the cause of the corruptions. If they were due to an intelligent hand it was natural to ask the source of that intelligence, and what goal that intelligence had in mind. And why did Sadler not notice those errors and contradictions before he sent the Revelation to press? (He acknowledged awareness of at least one corruption before the first printing, but he justified it through logical maneuvering.)

I personally believe Sadler and the Forum members did not question the third series of changes because all accepted that they came from midwayers. Thus no one paid serious attention to the details of changes in text during that period, or, if they did, the corruptions were effectively buried in other changes. Sadler followed the instruction, without question, that the changes were intended to clarify concepts and remove ambiguities. From evaluation we know that some of the errors and contradictions could slip by Sadler and Forum members because they were based on familiarity in the human mind. For example, the statement of twelve apostles present at the last supper after Judas departed could easily have slipped notice. The migration of the Red man from east to west also might have slipped by unnoticed. One of the outstanding contradictions was scientific, and occurred in two immediately adjacent paragraphs on page 477. Since Sadler and the Forum members were not scientifically trained in nuclear physics they probably would not have detected this contradiction. Other errors and contradictions occurred in such a way that they were not immediately visible. Hence, it seems that the corruptions were introduced in a way that no one noticed.

In other words, the source of the errors and contradictions did not inform Sadler or the Forum members about them, although immortal beings should have been in a position to recognize their hazard to human understanding. In fact, the corruptions were of such form that they distracted from the logical integrity of the Revelation, and any fresh reader might be put off by those corruptions. The scientific errors have had just such impact upon many people. (Because we are a materialistic society, the scientific content received first and most intense attention.)

Hence, it seems safe to conclude that the corruptions were intentional, and designed to denigrate the Revelation. This raises the further prospect that the science of the Urantia Papers was not necessarily limited to the knowledge of the early part of this century, but may also have been affected by the intelligent hand causing the corruptions.

Clearly, celestial beings with awesome intellectual and memory abilities would not engage in such activities if they were loyal to the Revelation. Since Sadler was uninformed about the corruptions, and was unaware of them through his own cognizance, we again are left with one conclusion.

Caligastia was the source of the corruptions.

Then our task devolves to searching for the mechanism by which the corruptions

32 - Catalogue Of Errors ~477~

were introduced.

We now know from the evidence provided by Carolyn Kendall, and from examination of the Forum “messages” given during the period from 1942 to 1955, that a channeling source was present in 533 during that period. As you well know from your co-presentation with Carolyn and Tom Kendall, and Mark Kulieke in Montreal in 1993, Christy continued to receive “messages” well into the 1970’s.

Since we also know that channeling comes only from Caligastia, Christy became the human vehicle by which the corruptions were implanted into the Revelation.

Sadler accepted the channeling because he was told they were midwayer communications. In spite of his extensive background in psychic investigations, he was completely hoodwinked. (I will not discuss the psychology which led to this astonishing deception.) Since he believed the alterations of the third series came from midwayers, when he discovered the corruptions he naturally assigned them to midwayer fallibility.

Hence Sadler defaulted twice: first, when he accepted Christy’s psychic communications as another form of midwayer activity, and second, when he later assigned the corruptions to the midwayers without thinking through the ramifications of such a theory.

You should note that Sadler became subject to the very fundamentalist type thinking you so disparagingly reject. The heroic status you assigned to Sadler in many of your writings is betrayed by his attitudes. He became unthinking in following the pattern of the Revelation process, and accepting “midwayer communications” without a critical eye.

I emphasize that fundamentalist thinking causes persons to blindly accept religious theories which do not accord with reality. This is the implication of your use of the word. However, it is abundantly evident from my work that I have employed considerable thought and research in my attempt to understand the corruptions which took place in the Revelation, and on those grounds cannot be classified as fundamentalist. Since I joined the ranks of Adams, Sadler, and many others, I cannot be classified as a fundamentalist on the further grounds of my desire for Revelation perfection; I merely desire to understand what could have caused errors and contradictions which appear entirely human. My labors do not preclude my acceptance of Revelations limitations conditioned by the realities of time and space. But you chose to throw all those considerations into the “fundamentalist” basket.

I believe you did so because of your own personal fears. It is my estimate that you were greatly disturbed to learn of the corruptions, and sought a way to justify the fact of their existence in a way that would preserve the value of the Revelation.

I could engage in a lengthy dissertation of Christian theological developments over the past century, and how mainline Church theologians fell into the deadly trap of disbelief — simple because they were awed by their own intellectual powers. They went from rejection of biblical infallibility, to a logical disbelief in the

~478~ The Birth of a Divine Revelation

primary Christian tenet that Jesus died and resurrected for the salvation of mankind. The Bible then became merely “inspirational” and lost its literal significance. You came out of the era, with your extensive training in modern theological developments. Thus you have a tendency to classify all matters religious from inspirationalist or fundamentalist perspectives. But you do a great disservice to yourself and to others when you resort to such simplistic mechanisms in order to cling to your fond desires.

Isn’t it time to put aside such simplistic views, and engage the world of reality, with all of its intense spiritual struggles, and its mighty challenge to the spiritual integrity of us all?



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 Part IV: The Life and Teachings of Jesus: Papers 120-196